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This is a reading for serious students of Jewish history and the Hebrew Bible. It is based on my M.Phil. thesis at Stellenbosch University. It deals with the concept of the Sabbath held by Jews between the period of the so-called Old and New Testaments. Was there a major Jewish view of the Sabbath or were there varied views? Was the Sabbath one of the most important issues facing the Jewish Community, or was it rather a peripheral issue? What was the place of Covenant with YHWH in relation to the Sabbath? What was the impact of the historical events of the period on views of the Sabbath? Was the understanding(s) of the Sabbath legalistic, or was there a depth of heartfelt spirituality accompanying Sabbath observance? Were the rules with regard to the Sabbath actually carried out, or were they largely ignored? The author answers the above questions by looking at five books (Jubilees, 1 and 2 Maccabees, the Damascus Document and Josephus' Jewish Antiquities). These books, written between 200 B.C.E. and 100 C.E, are representative of the literature that deals with the issue of the Sabbath in significant ways.