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Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence attributed to Aristotle Along with Plato and Socrates, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) is one of the triumvirate of philosophers responsible for the establishment of Western philosophy as it exists today. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were among the first to refine philosophical thought, and Socrates is credited with devising the Socratic Method as a way to argue and debate points rationally. The Ancient Greek philosophers further stressed the importance of virtue and stoicism, advocating the improvement of ones self through constant learning and knowledge. These teachings and practices formed the foundation for philosophy and psychology as fields of study. Aristotle was perhaps the most interested among the three in metaphysical issues, such as dreaming, the soul, and the subconscious.